is home to the most famous pyramids of all, three well-formed examples located
at Giza on the outskirts of Cairo. Just as there are pyramids throughout the
world, it should come as no surprise that Egypt has more than just these three.
Egyptologists have actually catalogued over 90 major pyramids that were built
over the course of 1,000 years (roughly 2600-1550 BC).
the pyramids can be found close to the west bank (none on the east bank) of the
Nile, with the majority found along a 17-kilometre stretch incorporating Abu Ghurob,
Saqqara and Dashur. Giza is 11 kilometres further north. Because of their size
and relative proximity, when visiting a site it is quite normal to see other pyramids
on the horizon.
Although each Egyptian pyramid
has individual features, they are far more alike than houses in our modern suburban
streets. The shape we know. The heights range from 17 to 146 metres, with the
faces at an angle to the base of 42-57 degrees, with a couple of 18 metre pyramids
attaining more than 70 degrees.
The largest pyramids
were built in quick succession:
truly gigantic stone pyramids were built over the course of only three generations:
Sneferu, Khufu and Khafre. If Sneferu did indeed build the Meidum pyramid as
well as his two stone pyramids at Dashur, his pyramids alone contain more than
3.5 million cu. m (124 million cu ft.) of stone. All the other pyramids of Egyptian
kings combined (excluding queens' and other satellite pyramids) contain only 41
per cent of the total mass of the pyramids of Sneferu, his son Khufu and grandson
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makes sense, on first impressions, to label these pyramids as gigantic mausoleums
for deceased pharaohs. They typically contain secret entrances and passages,
some which lead to rooms underneath the pyramid, and some that just come to an
abrupt dead-end. The main rooms have stress-relieving chambers above them - to
stop the immense weight crushing down and destroying whatever was in the room.
These rooms have contained sarcophagi, but never with a body still within,
which has prompted alternative researchers to look for other, non-burial purposes
for these structures. Some sarcophagi were even found closed and sealed, yet
Ancient Egyptian texts have mentioned
80 men being required to set the lid on a stone sarcophagus. This is in keeping
with the overall immensity of size and weight. The pyramids represent inconceivable
size and unbearable weight. To my thinking they represent the scale between the
ordinary and the incredible, between a simple burial chamber and a pyramid, between
a standard earthquake or hurricane and a global cataclysm.
close proximity to the major pyramids, there are usually temples and/or satellite
pyramids - miniatures commonly known as Queens' pyramids. These can also contain
passages and chambers.
The Great Pyramid of Cheops/Khufu
pharaoh Khufu reigned for 23 years from 2789 to 2767 BC, and it is the accepted
orthodox view that he constructed the Great Pyramid as his personal tomb. However,
the pharaoh's body was not found within it, nor any treasure, or anything remotely
related to a funeral. No mummy has ever been found in a pyramid in Egypt. Mummies
have always come from mastabas or tombs in the Valley of the Kings.
researchers have come up with an array of alternative dates for the construction
of the Giza pyramids. But if we rule out the endless possibilities of inter-galactic
visitors, there are no solid theories as to who else could possibly have made
Great Pyramid is huge. Its base covers 13.6 acres and for its weight estimates
vary between 5.75 - 6.5 million tons, based on 2.3 - 2.6 million blocks.  Napoleon's surveyors calculated that the three Giza pyramids
contained so much stone that they could build a three metres high by one metre
thick wall around the perimeter of France with it.
pyramid is located at 29 degrees, 58 minutes, 51.06 seconds north latitude, and
31 degrees, 9 minutes, and 0.0 seconds east longitude. This is very close to
30 degrees north, and it has been suggested that the Giza Plateau was the best
spot to place such an immense weight, whereas other areas would not be able to
cope.  The line of 30 degrees latitude is only a mile or two the
north, so they may have thought it was the best they could do, short of building
an unstable pyramid that might not last the required millennia.
believe that Giza is a special location that is at the centre of the earth's land
mass. If you follow the east/west parallel around the globe, it crosses more
land than any other parallel. The same goes for the north/south meridian that
intersects with Giza. These two lines also cross in the ocean.
Although there appears to be more land along the Russia / Alaska
parallel, if you use a globe this illusion disappears.
has been made of the extreme accuracy of the Great Pyramid's alignment to north,
with less than 1/15 of one degree of error.  However, this might be the least remarkable feature, when
you consider the math that has been built into it (see below).
top of the two giant pyramids are at the same height, although the Great Pyramid
is actually larger because its base is lower. A lot of effort was put into creating
"the base of Khufu's pyramid is level
to within just 2.1 cm.in building the pyramids of Khufu and Khafre the ancient
masons started on a sloping plateau c. 7-10 m (23-33 ft) higher than the
eventual base and in each case left a massif of rock in the body of the pyramid" 
It is hard enough to fathom why
this design aspect was so important in Giza, without considering that in Teotihuacan,
Mexico they did the same thing with their Pyramids of the Sun and Moon.
feature which is rarely mentioned is that the four faces of the pyramid are slightly
concave, a feature probably unduplicated anywhere else, ever. Some say that this
curvature is the same as the earth itself, which would add weight to ideas regarding
the pyramid as a model of our planet.
centre of each side is indented to form an eight-sided pyramid. The effect is
not visible from the ground or from a distance but only from the air, and then
only under the proper lighting conditions.
measurement used in the construction of the pyramid is known as the pyramid inch
"PI". It is equal to 1.0011 modern inches. Twenty-five pyramid inches
made up one "Sacred Cubit".
of the pyramid's base divided by twice its height equals "pi" to 5 decimal places:
/ 5813*2 = 3.141579+
The dimensions used are pyramid
inches, but because this is a ratio, any form of measurement will give the same
result. In this way it is future proof, in that alien beings could arrive and
inspect it thousands of years from now, and still derive pi.
makes this extraordinary is what is required to make this ratio occur - the slope
of the pyramid's sides needs to be precisely 51 degrees, 51 minutes, and 14.3
seconds. Of the 90 major pyramids in Egypt, the Great pyramid of Giza is the
only one with this angle.
The perimeter of the base
is equal to the calendar year - 365.24 pyramid cubits
many other equations have been discovered, with dozens of books consisting of
not much more than pyramid numbers. Some are ridiculous, and most are hard to
prove without a single, definitive source of measurements. Many are so complicated
that they appear contrived.
By focussing on the
few definites - location, size, angle and alignment, we can be certain that someone,
long ago, was trying to impress upon us that they knew things. They wanted our
NubiaNowadays located in northern Sudan, the ancient kingdom
of Nubia had an incredible 180 pyramids. Admittedly, some were only a few metres
in height, however a few attained a height of 40 metres or more. Built much later
than their Egyptian counterparts, they were created in the last millennium BC
through until about 350 AD, and situated along the banks of the Nile. For more
information, see Mark Lehner's "The Complete Pyramids".
probably heard of the biblical Tower of Babel. The word "Babel", in its original
Akkadian language means "the gate to god". In Mesopotamia attempts to recreate
the Tower of Babel were known as ziggurats - man-made mountains with a shrine
at the top.
A ziggurat is a pyramidal, stepped temple
tower. characteristic of the major cities of Mesopotamia (now in Iraq) from about
2200 until 500 BC. The ziggurat was always built with a core of mud brick and
an exterior covered with baked brick. It had no internal chambers and was usually
square or rectangular, averaging either 170 feet square or 125 170 feet
(40 50 metres)
at the base. Approximately 25 ziggurats are known, being equally divided in number
among Sumer, Babylonia, and Assyria.
is preserved to its original height. Ascent was by an exterior triple stairway
or by a spiral ramp, but for almost half of the known ziggurats, no means of ascent
has been discovered. The sloping sides and terraces were often landscaped with
trees and shrubs (hence the Hanging Gardens of Babylon). The best-preserved ziggurat
is at Ur. The largest, at Chogha Zanbil in Elam, is 335 feet (102 m) square and
80 feet (24 m) high and stands at less than half its estimated original height.
The legendary Tower of Babel has been popularly associated with the ziggurat of
the great temple of Marduk in Babylon. 
As you can see from the photos,
ziggurats do not have the geometric beauty of their cousins the pyramids. Yet,
when broken down to components, they are very similar - religious purpose (typically
there was a shrine at the summit), gigantic size, stepped and stair cased. They
are also very old - the Ur ziggurat dates to the 25th century BC,
making it contemporaneous with the Giza pyramids. Therefore I feel that they
belong in our studies of pyramids and their purpose.
Nemrut, Kâhta is a natural mountain (2150m), with a 50 metre artificial peak
built on top. It was constructed as a tomb for King Antinochus I during the period
80 B.C-72 B.C. If pyramids are meant to represent mountains, the builders of
this one have gone a step further by placing it on top of a real mountain.
Not just an artificial mound, this site features huge
(10 metre high) statues.
2012 at our forumGive the author your thoughts, and discuss any 2012
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Comments from Visitors
Why do so many of the pyramid appear to copy astral conglomerations that have been present in the past but has anyone looked at future patterns, some of the Aztec Mayan patterns match future stellar patterns.
YOU MIGHT WANT TO READ 'THE LOST REALMS' BY ZACHARIA SITCHIN.
if some body want`s to know where is the best place to survive just send me e mail. i ll give you true advice and evidence to how to people survived on the last ice age. cos i saw where they lived by my eyes.
Question: How far is the Nile River from the Great Pyramid, and is it further away now than it was when this pyramid was built?
I have just been to Egypt and our small group was able to have nearly two hours in the King's chamber to meditate. It was an awesome experience, timeless and spaceless. I feel much more complete for the experience. Apparently the pineal gland, which is in the centre of our brain can sychronise with the Great Pyramid, which is at the centre of our planet's land mass.
Lets Build The Largest Pyramid of them all, to commemorate the next cycle, of the destuction of civilization. We better build it...how will the next cycle remember us...dust?
I came to find out about the mayan calandar but stayed and found a site filled with so much information. I will be visiting again to continue my education. Keep up the great work. You've got me hooked.
u spelled ziggurat wrong
a lot of comments.
- Why is there no one who does his homework.
- According to the 3 pyramids in Giza there is no evidence what so ever of being mausoleums.
- Not in one of those 3 are discoveries of mummified pharaoh's. Not even a single clue which would point in that drection.
Dude, the pyramids were completed long before we found them. perhaps they were burial mounds at one point in time and the bones just finally disintegrated from, oh I don't know, water dripping on them or something
on your remarks about the pyramid's perimeter being 365.24 cubits, on what authority is the length of a cubit defined? It's not like there is a standard for it like the SI metre.
another comment: the centre of the earths land mass is an arbitrary point of the earth's surface (remember people the earth is a globe, not flat, i repeat NOT flat). also due to continental drift above the plates of the earth's crust, landmass is being destroyed everyday, so the geography of the earth is (very slightly) different to that of the earth 5000 years ago when Giza was built. Therefore, this is pretty much nonsense about Giza's significance as the centre of the earth's landmass. Sorry to wreck the buzz btw. [from Rob Bast: look for the longest continous stretches of land mass E-W and N-S on a globe. Giza is at the intersection]
Topunuzu sikiyim emi
I beleive the pyramids are meant to tell us something. there telling us the time is almost here for something big, something of a continuous happening. the ancient ones seem to be saying "the answer is written in the stars", because it sure is'nt written here on earth. something is comming soon. its on the way like a fedex package, the end is near and the beginning of something big is at hand. anyways, dont worry about the end of days if thats whats comming. what do we really fear about death? answer; that we wont know what happends at the end of the story of humanity! or at least that holds true for me as an individual. anyways..........
pi = 3,141592 - not 3.141579 (first 100000 digits can be found here : http://www2.tripnet.se/~nlg/pi0001.htm )
Is not Egypt in Africa? Why would you put Egypt in the Middle East
why do so many of the euro-pyramids predate euro civilization.were they built before europe was civilized? if so who built them?
What if... the egyptian pyramids where not built to give the farao eternal life in the afterlife, but on earth? Could it be some kind of nuclear bomb shelter to protect the mummy and it's belongings? To protect against earthquakes and cosmic rays?
most pyramids were probably primitive nuclear power plants erected by a post-modern culture approx 5K b.c. they were preceded by an ultra-modern culture like ours that was mysteriously anniliated. pyramid were however inefficient and unsafe. the 4-sided triangular shape concentrates weight in the center, so it does not blow in an explosion. the power source is a long metal prong that penetrates the radioactive core of the earth, sealed off in the base and accessible by 1 of typically 4 steep bottom staircases. a big pyramid such as giza could serve a whole county, while the smallest, about 40 ft sq, were probably for 1 home, typically wealthy. the mayans tried to warn away illiterate citizens with carvings of giant snakes--an excellent symbol for electricity--signifying the location of the probe. the radiation in the reactor chamber cud kill you in 1 hour, if the core is still active--as many unexcavated one are. as with our nuclear plants, water was sometimes used as a coolent, explaining proximity to a waterway. pyramids no longer in use were probably revamped as INCINERATOR. the capstan was removed to serve as a chimney. the steep stairs were handy to throw down trash without getting too close to the core. an enigma to the people, these incinerators were very unsafe, as they released radioactive gas. if you find this hard to believe, why is the modern symbol for radioactivity is a triangle with rotating arrow.
(con'd) The top/side stairs of the shtep pyramid were useful for combat and ariel vues, but misleading for intruders as they were often
- booby-trapped; you had to know which way to crimb, or you fell into a steep pit. Which leads to the theory that pyramid was used as ExEcuTIOn chamber in addition to incinerator; miscreants were chained near the reactor and subject to fatal radiatiom. is likely unconscious radiation victim were the ones aztec removed heart from to see how it beet. It was probably hunnerds of yrs later that pyramids served as tombs and temple. perhaps treasure-raden coffin were safe cuz the place was so hazard. carvings are not reliable indicators of their builders, as these couldve been added, too. indeed, the original structures were surely utilitariam. there were actually thousand off pyramid in ancient no america, destroyed by religiously-ideated COLoNISts and explorer anxious to hide orginal inhabitant, who were much more advance than commonly purporte. am indian were a post-apocalyptic nomadic ppl out of necessity, but mightve had permanent wooden and shtone homs. unexcavate pyramidt are sometimes locate under steeply slope street and public building (school are common), where access is prohibit.
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Script by Alex
 The Complete Pyramids, Mark Lehner, page 15 (Thames
and Hudson, London, 1997)
 The World Atlas of Mysteries, Francis Hitching,
page 67 (Pan, London, 1979)
 The Complete Pyramids, Mark Lehner, page 212 (Thames
and Hudson, London, 1997)
 The Complete Pyramids, Mark Lehner, page 214 (Thames
and Hudson, London, 1997)
 Britannica http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/2/0,5716,80472+1+78369,00.html